The National UK tax take in 2017 was £730 billion link
Proportionately that would be £2.8 billion paid by Cheltenham and Gloucester, £1.5 billion paid by Gloucester or £7 billion by Gloucestershire.
The amount is of total tax paid to government is £11,128 per person living in the country. Though this may not be the actual figure paid by Gloucester residents; there is probably a higher level per person paid by people living in the City of London and a lower level by those, say in more financially impoverished areas such as Cornwall. Nevertheless we are one nation interdependent on each other and it would seem fair to assume each area has a level of income to spend on services and infrastructure roughly proportional to the number of people living in the area with adjustments for need.
Currently Gloucester City Council has a budget of approx £100 million per year ie around 1/500 of tax paid by its residents.
The County council has a budget of £780 million a year ie approx 1/8 of tax paid by Gloucestershire residents.
https://www.ukpublicspending.co.uk/year_spending_2016UKbt_17bc1n#ukgs302 puts local government spending at roughly 1/5 of central government spending which seems a similar level to Gloucester ,ie about a fifth of tax paid by Gloucester residents goes towards their local government (City and County Council) the other 4/5th being spent by central government.
It should be noted that almost twice as much taxation is raised via VAT, National Insurance and Council tax all of which are regressive taxes ( ie the wealthy paying far less proportionately than the poor) than Income tax which is a progressive tax, ie the wealthy paying proportionately more than the less wealthy.